中級 美國腔 58173 分類 收藏
Check this out:
Here's a grid, nothing special, just a basic grid, very grid-y.
But look closer, into this white spot at the center
where the two central vertical and horizontal lines intersect.
Look very closely. Notice anything funny about this spot?
Yeah, nothing.
But keep looking. Get weird and stare at it.
Now, keeping your gaze fixed on this white spot,
check what's happening in your peripheral vision.
The other spots, are they still white? Or do they show weird flashes of grey?
Now look at this pan for baking muffins.
Oh, sorry, one of the cups is inverted. It pops up instead of dipping down.
Wait, no spin the pan. The other five are domed now?
Whichever it is, this pan's defective.
Here's a photo of Abraham Lincoln, and here's one upside down.
Nothing weird going on here.
Wait, turn that upside down one right side up. What have they done to Abe?
Those are just three optical illusions, images that seem to trick us.
How do they work?
Are magical things happening in the images themselves?
While we could certainly be sneaking flashes of grey into the peripheral white spots of our animated grid,
first off, we promise we aren't.
You'll see the same effect with a grid printed on a plain old piece of paper.
In reality, this grid really is just a grid. But not to your brain's visual system.
Here's how it interprets the light information you call this grid.
The white intersections are surrounded by relatively more white on all four sides
than any white point along a line segment.
Your retinal ganglion cells notice that there is more white around the intersections
because they are organized to increase contrast with lateral inhibition.
Better contrast means it's easier to see the edge of something.
And things are what your eyes and brain have evolved to see.
Your retinal ganglion cells don't respond as much at the crossings
because there is more lateral inhibition for more white spots nearby
compared to the lines, which are surrounded by black.
This isn't just a defect in your eyes;
if you can see, then optical illusions can trick you with your glasses on or with this paper or computer screen right up in your face.
What optical illusions show us
is the way your photo receptors and brain assemble visual information into the three-dimensional world you see around you,
where edges should get extra attention
because things with edges can help you or kill you.
Look at that muffin pan again. You know what causes confusion here?
Your brain's visual cortex operates on assumptions about the lighting of this image.
It expects light to come from a single source, shining down from above.
And so these shading patterns could only have been caused by light shining down
on the sloping sides of a dome, or the bottom of a hole.
If we carefully recreate these clues by drawing shading patterns,
even on a flat piece of paper,
our brain reflexively creates the 3D concave or convex shape.
Now for that creepy Lincoln upside down face.
Faces trigger activity in areas of the brain
that have specifically evolved to help us recognize faces.
Like the fusiform face area and others in the occipital and temporal lobes.
It makes sense, too, we're very social animals with highly complex ways of interacting with each other.
When we see faces, we have to recognize they are faces and figure out what they're expressing very quickly.
And what we focus on most are the eyes and mouth.
That's how we figure out if someone is mad at us or wants to be our friend.
In the upside down Lincoln face,
the eyes and mouth were actually right side up,
so you didn't notice anything was off.
But when we flipped the whole image over, the most important parts of the face,
the eyes and mouth, were now upside down, and you realized something fishy was up.
You realized your brain had taken a short cut and missed something.
But your brain wasn't really being lazy, it's just very busy.
So it spends cognitive energy as efficiently as possible,
using assumptions about visual information to create a tailored, edited vision of the world.
Imagine your brain calling out these edits on the fly:
"Okay, those squares could be objects.
Let's enhance that black-white contrast on the sides with lateral inhibition.
Darken those corners!
Dark grey fading into light grey?
Assume overhead sunlight falling on a sloping curve. Next!
Those eyes look like most eyes I've seen before, nothing weird going on here."
See? Our visual tricks have revealed your brain's job
as a busy director of 3D animation in a studio inside your skull,
allocating cognitive energy and constructing a world on the fly with tried and mostly -- but not always -- true tricks of its own.



【TED-Ed】錯覺如何欺騙你的大腦? How optical illusions trick your brain - Nathan S. Jacobs (How optical illusions trick your brain - Nathan S. Jacobs)

58173 分類 收藏
Ashley Chen 發佈於 2017 年 10 月 27 日



peripheral形容詞的意思是「圓周的;周圍的;次要的」,可以用 peripheral to + something 表示「以... 為主軸;比... 次要」。在作名詞時,則用以表示「(電腦的) 週邊設備」如螢幕、印表機等,因此,我們可以用 peripheral devices 或是名詞 peripherals 兩種形式來表示哦!
另外,peripheral 的名詞為 periphery,有「圓周;周圍」之意,在解剖學上則用以指稱「(神經的) 末梢」。
This project is peripheral to the main activities of the international association.

A little dog came into my peripheral vision.

He is picking peripherals for his new computer.

周圍神經系統-Crash Course課程 (Peripheral Nervous System: Crash Course)

retinal ganglion cell1:49
retinal 是形容詞,意思是「視網膜的」;ganglion 是「神經節」,因此 retinal ganglion cell 就是「視網膜神經節細胞」囉!接下來,就讓我們看看一些眼睛相關的常見單字:

iris 虹膜
iris 除了「虹膜」,也可以用以表示「鳶尾花;虹狀物」。另外,相對於用以調整瞳孔大小的虹膜,控制相機光線進入多寡的則是「光圈」,因此,iris 同時也可以用來表示相機的光圈哦!

cornea 角膜

pupil 瞳孔
pupil 除了「瞳孔」,更常見的意思則是「小學生;弟子;被監護人」。

lens 水晶體
水晶體是透過折射控制光線進到眼球之後聚焦於視網膜上的構造,而所謂的近視就是由於水晶體長時間用力過度變形所造成的。因此,同樣透過光學折射方式矯正視力或觀察微物的「鏡片」就有著與視網膜相同的英文 lens 囉!而我們最愛戴的「隱形眼鏡」則叫做 contact lens。要注意的一點是,lens 是單數,lenses 才是複數哦!

retina 視網膜
retinaretinal 的名詞形式,而視網膜上有視覺受器負責接收影像。

optic nerve 視神經
optic 在這邊作為形容詞,意思是「視覺的;眼睛的」,nerve 則有「神經;膽量;焦躁;厚顏」等意思,而視神經則負責將視網膜收到的影像傳回大腦。

周圍神經系統-Crash Course課程 (Peripheral Nervous System: Crash Course)

concave 可以作三種詞性使用。當形容詞時是「凹的;凹面的」的意思,當名詞時是指「凹面」,當動詞時則是「使成凹面」。它的相反詞為 convex,意思為「凸的、凸面的」。
Your nearsighted glasses are made of concave lenses.

The convex mirror at the corner gives driver a better sight to the coming path.

TED-Ed:為什麼手指泡水的時候會變皺 ? - Pruney fingers: A gripping story - Mark Changizi

fusiform 是形容詞,意思是「紡綻狀的、紡錘狀的」。在我們的頭腦中,有一個叫做「梭狀回 (fusiform gyrus)」的東西,功能為處理顏色信息、人臉與身體識別、文字識別、分類辨識等等,研究顯示梭狀回與面部辨識能力缺乏症直接相關。而梭狀回中負責人臉認知的部分即稱為「梭狀回面孔區 (fusiform face area, FFA)」,如果梭狀回面孔區被破壞,就會失去辨識人臉的能力。

【心理學】感覺與知覺 (Sensation & Perception - Crash Course Psychology)

temporal 3:30
temporal 的意思是「時間的;短暫的;世俗的;世間的」,在解剖學上則是指「靠近太陽穴 (temple) 的大腦側邊」。所謂的 temporal lobe 就是指「大腦側邊的顳葉」,是處理聽覺訊息的中樞。
Although the Pope has no temporal power, he is still the spiritual leader of many people.

什麼是Déjà vu?(What is Déjà vu?)


文/ Winnie
編輯/ Lilian Chang




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