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While touring the remains of ancient Alexandria, Egypt,
there are a few things that present day explorers should look for.
First, as you travel along the Great Harbor,
keep your eyes open for large columns and statues.
Across the bay to your left is the island where the Great Lighthouse once stood.
And as you make your way through the palaces of the Royal Quarter
and reach the area where the Library of Alexandria once stood,
keep your eyes open for sharks.
Because if you visit this section of Alexandria,
you'll be fifteen feet deep in the Mediterranean Sea.
Though people are most familiar with Plato's fictional Atlantis,
many real underwater cities actually exist.
Places like Alexandria,
Port Royal, Jamaica,
and Pavlopetri, Greece.
Sunken cities are studied by scientists
to help us understand the lives of our ancestors,
the dynamic nature of our planet,
and the impact of each on the other.
Water is essential for life, food sources, and transport,
so many cities have been built along coastlines and river banks.
However, these benefits also come with risks
because natural forces that can sink a city are at their doorstep.
Take, for instance, an earthquake.
June 7, 1692 seemed like a normal morning in Port Royal, Jamaica,
then one of the richest ports in the world,
but when a massive earthquake struck,
two-thirds of Port Royal immediately sank to its rooftops.
Today, many buildings and elements of everyday life
remain surprisingly intact on the sea floor, frozen in time.
That includes a 300-year-old pocket watch that stopped at 11:43,
the moment Port Royal slipped beneath the Carribean.
And during the winter of 373 BCE,
the Greek city of Helike was struck by an earthquake so strong
that it liquefied the sandy ground upon which the city was built.
Minutes later, a tsunami struck the city,
and Helike and its inhabitants sunk downwards into the Mediterranean Sea.
Centuries later, Roman tourists would sail on the lagoon that formed
and peer down at the city's remains.
Earthquakes are sudden, unpredictable disasters
that have drowned cities in an instant.
Luckily, however, throughout history,
the majority of sunken cities were not submerged by a single cataclysmic event,
but by a combination of more gradual processes.
For instance, Pavlopetri, the oldest known sunken city,
was built on the southern coastline of Greece 5,000 years ago.
It's an example of a city that was submerged
due to what is called isostatic sea level change.
18,000 years ago when the Ice Age ended,
glaciers began melting and the sea level rose globally until about 5,000 years ago.
Isostatic sea level change isn't caused by that melt water,
but rather the Earth's crust slowly springing back
from the released weight of the glaciers,
making some places rise, and others sink.
The ground around Pavlopetri is still sinking
at an average rate of a millimeter per year.
But the ancient inhabitants were able to move gradually inland over several generations
before they finally abandoned the city about 3,000 years ago.
Today, divers swim over the streets of Pavlopetri
and peer through ancient door jambs
into the foundations of houses and community buildings.
They learn about the people who lived there by observing what they left behind.
Natural geological events, such as earthquakes and tsunamis,
will continue to shape our continents,
just as they have for millions of years.
As increased global warming melts our polar ice caps at accelerated rates
and sea levels rise,
we will be forced to adapt,
like Pavlopetri's inhabitants.
Undoubtedly, over the coming centuries,
some of the coastal areas that we live in today
will eventually be claimed by the water, too -
cities like Venice,
New Orleans,
and Tokyo.
Imagine what future civilizations will learn about us
as they swim around the ancient ruins of the cities that we live in today.



【TED-Ed】你所不知道的海底城市 (Real life sunken cities - Peter Campbell)

35000 分類 收藏
Jamie 榕 發佈於 2016 年 12 月 1 日   Jenny 翻譯   Mandy Lin 審核


Though people are most familiar with Plato’s fictional Atlantis, many real underwater cities actually exist. Peter Campbell explains how sunken cities are studied by scientists to help us understand the lives of our ancestors, the dynamic nature of our planet, and the impact of each on the other.

最著名的海底古城亞特蘭提斯 (Atlantis) 遺跡仍未被歷史學家與考古學家找到,但你知道有許多海底城市真的存在嗎?由於數千年來的變遷,這些海底古城被淹沒在汪洋大海之中,引起了許多學者的考究。這些古城有哪些呢?來看看影片吧~

1keep your eyes open0:17
keep your eyes open 就是「睜大眼睛看」、「特別注意」的意思。
He might be cheating on you. Keep your eyes open for any suspicious signs.

也可以說 keep your eyes peeledkeep your eyes skinned
We kept our eyes peeled for venomous snakes as we wandered through the woods.

2make one's way0:26
這句片語的意思是「向前走」,在 make your way 之後加上 to/through/towards 等介系詞,後面再加上一個地點,表示「前往某處」的意思。
After an exhausting day, we slowly made our way back to our tents.

make one's own way 則是「自己前往某地」。
Don't worry. I can make my own way home.

另外,make one's way 除了「前往哪裡」的解釋,另一個比較抽象的解釋是「在職涯或是某個活動上有所進展」。
You have to experience many difficulties to make your own way in the society.

荷蘭 (Amsterdam Vacation Travel Guide | Expedia)

dynamic 這個形容詞的意思是「動態的」、「有活力的」。
Markets are dynamic and a company must learn to adapt.

She is a dynamic, young businesswoman with a philanthropic heart.

【TED】我們能為人類創造新感官嗎? David Eagleman: Can we create new senses for humans?

4at one's doorstep 1:16
doorstep 的意思是「門階」(也就是門口前面的階梯),所以 at one's doorstepon one's doorstep 的意思是「近在咫尺」、「在某人附近」。
Wow! You've got the beach right at your doorstep!

I was shocked when my long lost twin turned up on my doorstep.

intact (adj.) 的意思是「完整無缺的;原封不動的」。
The old temple has survived the earthquake intact, with very little visible damage.

Primitive life on this small Southeast Asian island has remained largely intact despite the pressures of modernization.

【TED-Ed】保護我們壯麗且脆弱的珊瑚礁 - Conserving our spectacular, vulnerable coral reefs - Joshua Drew





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