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Fish are in trouble.
The cod population off Canada's East Coast collapsed in the 1990s,
intense recreational and commercial fishing
has decimated goliath grouper populations in South Florida,
and most populations of tuna have plummeted by over 50%,
with the Southern Atlantic bluefin on the verge of extinction.
Those are just a couple of many examples.
Overfishing is happening all over the world.
How did this happen?
When some people think of fishing,
they imagine relaxing in a boat and patiently reeling in the day's catch.
But modern industrial fishing, the kind that stocks our grocery shelves,
looks more like warfare.
In fact, the technologies they employ were developed for war.
Radar,
sonar,
helicopters,
and spotter planes
are all used to guide factory ships towards dwindling schools of fish.
Long lines with hundreds of hooks or huge nets
round up massive amounts of fish, along with other species,
like seabirds, turtles, and dolphins.
And fish are hauled up onto giant boats,
complete with onboard flash freezing and processing facilities.
All of these technologies have enabled us to catch fish at greater depths
and farther out at sea than ever before.
And as the distance and depth of fishing have expanded,
so has the variety of species we target.
For example, the Patagonian toothfish neither sounds nor looks very appetizing.
And fishermen ignored it until the late 1970s.
Then it was rebranded and marketed to chefs in the U.S. as Chilean sea bass,
despite the animal actually being a type of cod.
Soon it was popping up in markets all over the world
and is now a delicacy.
Unfortunately, these deep water fish don't reproduce
until they're at least ten years old,
making them extremely vulnerable to overfishing
when the young are caught before they've had the chance to spawn.
Consumer taste and prices can also have harmful effects.
For example, shark fin soup is considered such a delicacy in China and Vietnam
that the fin has become the most profitable part of the shark.
This leads many fishermen to fill their boats with fins
leaving millions of dead sharks behind.
The problems aren't unique to toothfish and sharks.
Almost 31% of the world's fish populations are overfished,
and another 58% are fished at the maximum sustainable level.
Wild fish simply can't reproduce as fast as 7 billion people can eat them.
Fishing also has impacts on broader ecosystems.
Wild shrimp are typically caught by dragging nets the size of a football field
along the ocean bottom,
disrupting or destroying seafloor habitats.
The catch is often as little as 5% shrimp.
The rest is by-catch, unwanted animals that are thrown back dead.
And coastal shrimp farming isn't much better.
Mangroves are bulldozed to make room for shrimp farms,
robbing coastal communities of storm protection and natural water filtration
and depriving fish of key nursery habitats.
So what does it look like to give fish a break and let them recover?
Protection can take many forms.
In national waters, governments can set limits
about how, when, where, and how much fishing occurs,
with restrictions on certain boats and equipment.
Harmful practices, such as bottom trawling, can be banned altogether,
and we can establish marine reserves closed to all fishing
to help ecosystems restore themselves.
There's also a role for consumer awareness and boycotts to reduce wasteful practices,
like shark finning,
and push fishing industries towards more sustainable practices.
Past interventions have successfully helped depleted fish populations recover.
There are many solutions.
The best approach for each fishery must be considered based on science,
respect for the local communities that rely on the ocean,
and for fish as wild animals.
And then the rules must be enforced.
International collaboration is often needed, too,
because fish don't care about our borders.
We need to end overfishing.
Ecosystems,
food security,
jobs,
economies,
and coastal cultures all depend on it.
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【TED-Ed】海裡面的魚會不會有被抓光的一天?(Will the ocean ever run out of fish? - Ayana Elizabeth Johnson and Jennifer Jacquet)

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L-HJ 發佈於 2018 年 4 月 14 日   JT 翻譯   jenny 審核

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市場、超市看到的魚,都是從哪裡來的呢?再這樣吃下去,以後還有魚可以吃嗎?!

1on the verge0:26
on the verge 的意思為「瀕臨」、「接近」,後面常接介系詞 of,例如接近 100 歲,就可以說 on the verge of 100,或是快要哭出來了即可用 on the verge of tears 來表示。
They are on the verge of divorce; their marriage is a wreck.
他們快要離婚,婚姻已經殘破不堪。


*同場加映:
【TED-Ed】為什麼美國人在星期二投票? Why do Americans vote on Tuesdays? - Jacob Soboroff


2along with1:03
along with 的意思為「隨著」、「連同」,表達一同的概念,說明事物伴隨著另一件事物而來,同義詞有 together with 以及 in company with 皆可表示「一起」的意思。
Sadness always goes along with happiness. Just like success always goes along with failure.
傷心往往與幸福並行而至,就像是成功與失敗並存一樣。


3pop up1:41
pop up 當動詞表示「出現」,通常有突然發生的意思,像是常見的「彈跳式廣告」即稱為 pop-up ads,而期間限定的「快閃店」則是 pop-up store。
Pop-up ads annoy consumers and yet more and more money is being poured into pop-ups.
彈跳式廣告惹惱消費者,但還是有更多資金注入。


4deprive2:57
deprive 的意思為「剝奪」,後面常接介系詞 of,例如 deprive of freedom 「剝奪自由」,另外補充「睡眠不足」的英文是 sleep deprivation,因為睡眠不足就好比剝奪你的睡眠一樣意思。
The citizens are deprived of their right to vote.
市民被剝奪投票權。


*同場加映:
致命的東西其實超級多! (This Much Will Kill You)


5boycott3:28
boycott 的意思為「抵制」,也可稱作「杯葛」,表示去抵抗某件事來表達你的不滿,通常是一群人一起聯合抵制,例如抵抗某項產品就可以說 boycott the product。
Germany, Poland and the Netherlands joined a boycott led by the US and Israel.
德國、波蘭和荷蘭加入了由美國和以色列發起的抵制。


雖然魚料理各式各樣,無論蒸煎烤都有不同的美味,但有些還是必須抵制的,像是魚翅就不要去吃啊!

文/ Carol Chen

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