初級 美國腔 11975 分類 收藏
Every two seconds, someone somewhere in the world experiences a stroke.
And one out of every six people will have one at some point in their lives.
Strokes deprive brain cells of oxygen
and are one of the most common causes of death
and a leading cause of preventable disability.
When someone experiences a stroke, quick medical care is critical ,
and can often help avoid permanent brain damage.
But what causes strokes in the first place?
And what can doctors do to treat    them?
The brain makes up just 2% of your body’s mass
but consumes more than 20% of the oxygen in your blood.
That oxygen is carried to the brain through a system of arteries.
Carotid arteries supply the front of the brain,
and vertebral arteries supply the back.
These are connected to each other,
and divide into smaller and smaller vessels
that get billions of neurons the oxygen they need.
If the blood flow is interrupted, oxygen delivery stops and brain cells die.
There are two ways this can happen.
Hemorrhagic strokes are when a perforated vessel allows blood to leak out.
But the more common type is the ischemic stroke,
when a clot blocks a vessel and brings blood flow to a halt.
Where do these clots come from?
On rare occasions, a sudden change in heart rhythm
prevents the upper chambers of the heart from contracting normally.
This slows down blood flow,
allowing platelets, clotting factors, and fibrin to stick together.
The clot can be carried up
towards the arteries and blood vessels supplying the brain
until it gets to one it can’t squeeze through.
This is called an embolism
and it cuts off the oxygen supply to all the cells downstream.
The brain doesn't have pain receptors, so you can't feel the blockage itself.
But oxygen deprivation slows brain function
and can have sudden, noticeable effects.
For example, if the affected area is responsible for speech,
an individual’s words may be slurred   .
If the stroke affects a part of the brain that controls muscle movement,
it can cause weakness, often just on one side of the body.
When this happens, the body will immediately try to compensate  
by diverting blood flow to the affected area,
but this isn’t a perfect solution.
Eventually, the oxygen-deprived cells will start to die,
leading to brain damage that may be severe or permanent .
That’s why it’s important to get medical care as fast as possible.
The first line of treatment is an intravenous medication
called Tissue Plasminogen Activator,
which can break up the blood clot
and allow blood to flow again in the compromised artery.
If it’s delivered within a few hours,
this medication greatly increases the chance of surviving the stroke
and avoiding permanent consequences.
If Tissue Plasminogen Activator cannot be given
because the patient is on certain medications,
has history of major bleeding,
or the clot is particularly large,
doctors can perform a procedure called an endovascular thrombectomy.
Using a fluorescent dye that illuminates the blood vessels under a strong x-ray,
the physician inserts a long, thin, flexible tube called a catheter
into an artery in the leg
and maneuvers it all the way to the blockage.
A retriever is passed through this catheter.
It expands and anchors into the clot when it’s just past it.
The catheter then pulls the clot out when it’s removed.
These treatments need to be delivered as soon as possible
to preserve brain function,
which means figuring out fast if someone is having a stroke.
So how can you tell?
Here are three quick things to try:
1. Ask the person to smile.
A crooked mouth or facial drooping can indicate muscle weakness.
2. Ask them to raise their arms.
If one drifts downward, that arm weakness is also a sign of a stroke.
3. Ask them to repeat a simple word or phrase.
If their speech sounds slurred    or strange,
it could mean that the language area of their brain is oxygen-deprived.
This is sometimes called the FAST test, and the T stands for time.
If you see any of those signs, call emergency services right away.
Lives may depend on it.


【TED-Ed】中風是怎麼回事? (What happens during a stroke? - Vaibhav Goswami)

11975 分類 收藏
Jenny 發佈於 2018 年 5 月 1 日   Jade Weng 翻譯   jenny 審核



1critical 0:26
critical 在影片中的意思為「緊要的;關鍵性的」,除此之外 critical 也有「批評性的; 挑剔的」意思。
The CEO's support is critical to this project.

Her job at the publisher is to write critical articles about current affairs.

【TED-Ed】性別決定:超乎你的想像! Sex determination: More complicated than you thought - Aaron Reedy

2permanent 0:31
permanent 有「永恆的、永久的;固定的」,而在影片中皆是指「永恆的、永久的」,permanent damage/consequences 表示永久性的傷害/後果。
Are you looking for a temporary or a permanent job?

【TED-Ed】北極與南極的生存之道 (The Arctic vs. the Antarctic - Camille Seaman)

3treat    0:39
影片中的 treat 是當動詞使用,有「治療;對待;看待;請客」。除了當動詞,treat 為名詞時有「樂事;特別款待」。
Don't treat me like a child, I know what's right and wrong.

Let's go out for dinner tonight to celebrate your birthday. My treat!

小孩總統 VS 歐巴馬總統 (Kid President meets the President of the United States of America)

4slur    2:17
slur 為動詞,意指「含糊地說、口齒不清地說」,另外其名詞「汙辱、毀謗」也是常見的用法,例如 racial slur 即為「種族歧視的言語」。
He started to slur his words after several glasses of wine.

領導香港革命的 20 歲青年 (The 20-Year-Old Leading the Revolution in Hong Kong | China Uncensored)

5compensate   2:29
compensate 有「補償,賠償」的意思,當動詞來使用,若要說「為某物賠償某人」的話可以用 compensate someone for something。
John took his wife for a trip to compensate for not being around on her birthday.

【TED-Ed】歷史上的拿破崙 (History vs. Napoleon Bonaparte - Alex Gendler)


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