中級 美國腔 20614 分類 收藏
A pungent blend of onions, cheese, and cat urine with hints of...
is that…wet goat?
Most of us don't need more than one whiff
to identify that generally unpleasant, characteristic smell we call body odor.
But it's a surprisingly complex phenomenon
influenced by our genetic makeup, age, diet, and hygiene.
So what is this odor, exactly?
Where does it come from?
And can we do anything about it?
To start, you just need two things to produce that familiar scent:
your armpit's own secretions
and the bacteria that feed on them.
Most people associate body odor with sweat,
and it's an important piece of the puzzle.
Your body has millions of sweat glands, and they come in two major types:
eccrine glands are found all over your skin
and secrete mainly water and salt.
Apocrine glands, on the other hand, develop at puberty in your armpits
and a few other places on your body.
The sweat they secrete is full of proteins and fats.
By themselves, these secretions are usually odorless.
That's where bacteria come in.
Every square centimeter of our bodies is covered with thousands of bacteria.
Many microorganisms thrive in moist environments, like our armpits.
There, you can find about a million bacteria per square centimeter,
one of the highest concentrations anywhere on the skin.
Lurking in this throng of microorganisms are species of Corynebacteria,
and others.
When these bacteria feed on the proteins and fats in apocrine sweat,
they turn the odorless compounds into new ones that can smell very unpleasant.
Some of the worst offenders may be sulfur-containing chemicals;
those give body odor its oniony aroma.
Carboxylic acids are in the mix, too, adding notes of cheese.
These molecules waft up from the armpit and can be sucked directly into our noses,
where they're trapped and detected by an array of specialized receptors.
Those can recognize odor molecules
at concentrations of less than one in a million.
So what determines how strong your body odor might be?
It depends on the resident microbial populations in your armpit,
and the nutrients that your glands provide them with.
Your genes help determine what compounds you produce,
and in what quantity,
so everyone has a slightly different set.
In fact, a gene variant that virtually eliminates body odor
is common in people of East Asian descent.
Adrenaline increases the ratio of apocrine to eccrine sweat,
so body odor can be more intense when you're nervous.
Bacterial composition and concentration also varies between individuals
and plays a part.
Even what you eat can have a small effect on how you smell.
So how can we deal with body odor?
Washing the armpits with soap and water helps but won't remove all the bacteria
since many are buried in deeper layers of the skin.
Deodorants, however, inhibit bacterial activity and mask odors at the same time.
Antiperspirants work by forming tiny gel plugs that block sweat glands,
drying out the armpits.
While we continue to battle body odor, scientists are trying to understand it.
We don't know why the brain
often interprets these particular odors as off-putting .
But some researchers have proposed that secretions from the armpit
could have a positive function, too,
like cementing social bonds
and providing a means of chemical communication.
We don't know yet if that's the case.
For now, body odor seems to be
just another smelly part of the human condition.



【TED-Ed】身體為何散發臭味呢? (What causes body odor? - Mel Rosenberg)

20614 分類 收藏
April Lu 發佈於 2018 年 4 月 23 日    April Lu 翻譯    Evangeline 審核


炎炎夏日走在路上時,小 V 最怕聞到不知從何處傳來的汗味,也怕運動完,身上會有不好聞的味道,讓身邊的人覺得自己臭臭的... 透過今天的影片,一起了解人體散發臭味的原因吧!

1odor 0:18
odor 的中文是「氣味」,可指難聞的臭味,也可單純指中性的味道,沒有臭或香味之別。和 smell 一樣,通常會在前面加上形容詞,表示是哪種氣味。小 V 補充,香味的英文有 fragrancescent 或是 aroma;臭味則是 stenchstink
There was an unpleasant odor that filled the classroom.

男孩們那些青春期的事 All About Boys Puberty

2secrete 1:00
secrete 在此作動詞,中文是「分泌」。人體「分泌」汗水 sweat、腎上腺素 adrenaline 或賀爾蒙 hormone 等,就是使用這個動詞喔!
The pores of the human body secrete sweat.

【TED-Ed】Robert Full 談向壁虎學習 - Curiosity, discovery and gecko feet

puberty 的中文是「青春期」,開始、進入青春期是 reach pubertyadolescence 也有「青春期」的意思,兩者的區別是:adolescence 偏向心理層面,是人生其中一個階段;puberty 則偏生理層面,指人體發展的一段變化過程。
As teenagers go through puberty, they may feel awkward about their appearances or bodies.

4off-putting 3:45
off-putting 是形容詞,中文是「倒胃口」、「令人厭惡的」。片語 put off 則有「延期、延後」的意思,如 The processor has put off the exam until tomorrow. 教授把考試延到明天。
Meals served in the hospitals are sometimes off-putting.

為什麼會變老? 我們應該永遠結束衰老嗎? (Why Age? Should We End Aging Forever?)

5cement 3:54
cement 這裡作動詞,是「鞏固」、「黏牢」的意思。cement 另一個常見用法是當名詞,中文為「水泥」,來看看兩種詞性的用法:
The aim for this annual meeting is to cement the relation between the two countries.

This road is paved with cement.


文/ Rong Chiang




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